Are Christians a Persecuted Minority in the West?

Everyone loves a victim, and is happy to claim victim status. It bestows a kind of righteous aura, as well as a Get Out of Jail Free card when caught behaving badly. Perhaps for this reason many places cultivate a culture of victimhood. As the North American culture war rages on, the question may be asked: are Christians victims? Do they constitute a persecuted minority in the West?

It all depends, of course, upon how one defines persecution. When one looks back historically and abroad geographically, one sees real persecution. The Christians of pagan Rome in the second and third centuries, and the Christians of Soviet Russia in the twentieth, endured true persecution. They were arrested simply because of their faith in Christ and membership in His Church; they were imprisoned, tortured, sent into exile or killed. Similar suffering is experienced now by Christians abroad, such as in the world of Islam (for which, I need hardly add, one should not blame one’s Muslim neighbour down the street). This is true persecution, and as far as I can see, no one in North America experiences that. Many people face discrimination and bullying, including gays and Muslims, but arrest, imprisonment, torture, and execution are not experienced by any citizen on North American soil for their religious allegiance. If we choose to define as persecution the discrimination experienced by these groups, then we need to find another word to describe the experiences of those who are arrested, tortured, and killed for their Faith. Accordingly I would reserve the term “persecution” for those experiencing this latter form of suffering.

Perhaps a better way of approaching the whole question would be to inquire whether those publically espousing and promoting the beliefs and values of the Christian Faith pay a social price for such espousal and promotion. Here, I think, the answer is clearly, “Yes, they do.” But in asserting that traditional Christian values have become unpopular in North America and that Christians pay a price for espousing them, we must further define what we mean by “Christian values”. All sorts of people claim the Christian label, people as different from one another as John Spong and Billy Graham. Some assert, for example, that support for the LGBT agenda is incumbent upon them as Christians, while others assert that resisting this agenda is a part of their duty as Christians. Some feel that their Christian Faith compels them to support a woman’s right to abort her child, while others feel that their Faith compels them to oppose abortion. Given the tremendous diversity of people all claiming that their values and views are specifically Christian, a definition of Christian values would be helpful.

By the term “Christian values” I mean the values and views contained in the New Testament Scriptures and held by the Fathers as the authoritative and recognized interpreters of those Scriptures. Thus, to speak to the two issues mentioned in passing above, the Scriptures and the Fathers assert that homosexual acts are inherently sinful, and that abortion is tantamount to murder. One can disagree with these sentiments, but it seems clear enough that they are indeed those of the Scriptures and the Fathers. Of course, one can disagree with the foundational documents of historical Christianity and its acknowledged spokesmen and still claim to be Christian. But integrity would seem to demand that one then admit to inventing a new religion, and have the honesty to give it a name other than “Christianity”. Some label adherence to the older and historical values of Christianity “conservative Christianity” or even “fundamentalism”. All such heated rhetoric and labelling aside, “conservative Christianity” is the only kind of Christianity that would be acknowledged as such by the Fathers, and a more liberal kind of Christianity that advocated acceptance of homosexual practices would not be called Christianity by them, but rather heresy—or perhaps simply worldliness. (Please note that I am referring to the historical theology of “conservative Christianity”, not to the politics of the American Religious Right.)

That Christians find themselves at odds with the prevailing culture is not surprising, and should not be a cause for Christians to wail in shock as if this were something new. Or, in the words of 1 Peter 4:12, they should “not be surprised at the fiery ordeal which comes upon you to prove you as though something strange were happening to you”. Nothing new or odd is occurring; the World is simply acting like the World, as it has always done.

Our Lord warned us that the world will hate us because we are no longer of the world since He has chosen us out of the world” (Jn. 15:18-19). Paul exhorted us not to let the world squeeze us into its mould (Rom. 12:2, Phillips translation). James reminded us that friendship with the world is enmity with God (Jas. 4:4), and John told us that the whole world lies in the power of the Evil One (1 Jn. 5:19).

Recognizing this fundamental opposition of the World to the Kingdom is not paranoia, but a basic category for Christians living in this age. This age (in Latin, saecula, from which we get the word “secular”) will always challenge and tempt Christians to cease living differently than others live and conform to the fallen categories of the world around us. These temptations will differ from century to century, and from place to place. In the first centuries of the Church’s existence, the main temptation was to idolatry. In the Old South at the time of the American civil war, the prevailing secular blind spot was its racism. The varying ways in which the World tempts Christians differ according to time and place, but the element of threat from worldliness remains, as the strong and rich tyrannize the weak and poor. In any age or place, if Christians simply go with the secular flow, they will be going in the wrong direction. Worldliness remains one of the perennial temptations for the disciples of Jesus; and the perennial challenge for us is to discern where the secular world is right and where it is wrong. This discernment doesn’t require one to be a prophet or a genius. One just needs to be humble and teachable, able to read the Scriptures and willing to listen to the Fathers.

Just now in North America, the World is pressuring Christians in matters of gay rights and abortion, and identifying yourself as a Christian who opposes these things is enough to bring angry voices and retaliation. Despite the fact that Christians form a sizable clump of the population in the U.S. (less so in Canada), espousing Christian values in these key areas where the World presses its agenda brings vigorous push back. This pressure seems to be increasingly hostile and frequent. Consider the following events which made the news in just the past few months.

At the end of 2013, Phil Robertson found himself suspended from the show “Duck Dynasty” for his views regarding the sinfulness of homosexual practices. An interviewer for GQ Magazine asked Robertson the question, “What, in your mind, is sinful?”, and not surprisingly for an evangelical Protestant, he began his response by quoting the Bible, including the list of sins in Leviticus: “Start with homosexual behavior and just morph out from there. Bestiality, sleeping around with this woman and that woman and that woman and those men.” The network for which he worked responded by instantly suspending him. It is irrelevant that in the backlash to his suspension, he was reinstated. The point is that opposition to the current canons of worldliness brought instant retaliation.

In February 2014, the owner of Masterpiece Cakeshop in Colorado was threatened with a fine and up to a year’s incarceration for refusing to bake a cake for a gay wedding. In New Mexico, a photographer was similarly threatened for refusing to photograph a gay wedding.

In March 2014, Brendan Eich was forced to step down as CEO of Mozilla (which company he co-founded) because he made a donation of $1000 to campaign for Proposition 8, a ballot initiative which sought to ban same-sex marriage in California. The donation (small change for such a CEO) was made six years ago. But no matter. Retaliation for opposing the new liberal orthodoxy was swift.

In April 2014, Nabisco company aired an ad portraying two gay men raising a boy, with the tag “this is wholesome”, and when a number of people wrote to complain that they did not regard it as wholesome and that, moreover, who were the makers of biscuits to be pontificating about morality anyway, another ad was aired to put such protesters in their place: the offending letters were rolled up and stood on end, forming them into a paper sculpture of the word “Love”. Take that, protesting prigs!

Again in April 2014, a new natural food store in Portland, Moreland Farmers Pantry, run by Chauncy Childs, suffered opposition because of the owner’s views about her opposition to same-sex marriage as expressed, not in the store or in business practices, but on Facebook. A business expressing support for Childs was threatened with a boycott. Never mind that she said she would never deny service to a gay person at her store. Never mind that as a gesture of goodwill, she donated $1000 to the local LGBTQ youth programme. She is suffering retaliation simply because she publically expressed opposition to same-sex marriage.

Even Canada is not immune to this trend of targeting Christians for their non-conformity to secular norms. More recently in Alberta, in their new Education Act, homeschoolers and faith-based schools will not be allowed to teach that homosexual acts are sinful as part of their academic programme. Said a government spokesperson, “Whatever the nature of schooling—homeschool, private school, Catholic school—we do not tolerate disrespect for differences.” In other words, even faith-based schools may not teach that part of their faith which contradicts the new secular norms.

One can detect a trend here, as pressure is relentlessly applied to normalize new sexual definitions and mores and enforce them with the full draconian power of the State. As Ms. Childs has discovered, the offense lies not in one’s actions, but in one’s thought. She would never act in a discriminatory way against gays or same-sex couples, but she does think that such marriage is wrong. It is her belief, expressed on Facebook, that is regarded as offensive and which brings retaliation.

It seems that as long as Christians speak and act like the World in this cultural shift, no sanctions will be forthcoming. If they dare to contradict the World as it changes older Christian norms and values, a price will be exacted of them. In a very real sense, there will be hell to pay. Admittedly this does not constitute persecution. But it does mean that the World is aggressively pursuing its own agenda and putting pressure on Christians to either conform or at least shut up. Living in a democracy where laws and norms can be debated and changed encourages us not to shut up just yet. Discipleship to Jesus Christ demands that we refuse to conform ever, no matter what.

Posted by the Orthodox Christian Network.  You can find the Orthodox Christian Network on Google+.


Fr. Lawrence Farley

Fr. Lawrence was formerly an Anglican priest, graduating from Wycliffe College in Toronto, Canada in 1979 before serving Anglican parishes in central Canada. He converted to Orthodoxy in 1985 and spent two years at St. Tikhon’s Seminary in South Canaan, Pennsylvania. After ordination he traveled to Surrey, B.C. to begin a new mission under the O.C.A., St. Herman of Alaska Church.

The Church has grown from its original twelve members, and now owns a building in Langley, B.C., where they worship each Sunday. The community has planted a number of ‘daughter churches’, including parishes in Victoria, Comox and Vancouver.

Fr. Lawrence has written a number of books, published by Conciliar Press, including the Bible Study Companion Series, with verse-by-verse commentaries on the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Romans, 1-2 Corinthians, the Early Epistles, the Prison Epistles, the Pastoral Epistles, the Catholic Epistles, and the Book of Revelation, as well as a volume about how to read the Old Testament , entitled The Christian Old Testament. He has also written a commentary on the Divine Liturgy, entitled, Let Us Attend: A Journey through the Orthodox Divine Liturgy. SVS Press has published his book on Feminism and Tradition, examining such topics as the ordination of women and deaconesses. He has also written a synaxarion (lives of Saints), published by Light and Life, entitled A Daily Calendar of Saints, recently updated and revised and available through his blog. He has also written a series of Akathists, published by Alexander Press, including Akathist to Jesus, Light to Those in Darkness, Akathist to the Most-Holy Theotokos, Daughter of Zion, A New Akathist to St. Herman of Alaska, Akathist: Glory to the God who Works Wonders (a rehearsal of the works of God from Genesis to Revelation). His articles have appeared in the Canadian Orthodox Messenger (the official diocesan publication of the Archdiocese of Canada), as well as in the Orthodox Church (the official publication of the O.C.A.), in The Handmaiden and AGAIN magazine (from Conciliar Press).

Fr. Lawrence has a podcast each weekday on Ancient Faith Radio, the Coffee Cup Commentaries. He has given a number of parish retreats in the U.S. and Canada, as well as being a guest-lecturer yearly at the local Regent College, Vancouver. He can also be found on his personal blog, Straight from the Heart.

Fr. Lawrence lives in Surrey with his wife, Donna. They have two daughters, and three grandchildren.