The New Covenant

The New Covenant


Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.”  And He took a cup, and when He had given thanks He gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you;  for this is My blood of the new covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.  I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”  Matthew 26: 26-29  (From the Gospel of the Vesperal Liturgy on Holy Thursday) Wednesday of the Third Week of Lent


Good morning Prayer Team!

A “covenant” is a sacred or solemn agreement.  The first covenant was made between God and Abraham.  In Genesis 17, “The Lord appeared to Abraham, and said to him, ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me and be blameless.  And I will make My covenant between Me and you, and will multiply you exceedingly. . .behold, My covenant is with you, and you shall be father of a multitude of nations. . .I will make you exceedingly fruitful; and I will make nations of you and kings shall come forth from you.  And I will establish My covenant between Me and you, and kings shall come forth from you.  And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your descendants after you.’” (v. 1-7)

As a sign of this covenant between God and His people, the Lord required that all males be circumcised. (Genesis 17:10-14)  This was a sacrifice which required the shedding of blood of each male child.  There were other sacrifices as well, which involved blood as well—rams and bulls and lambs—offered to the Lord as atonement for sin.  Even a happy occasion like the birth of a child required an offering of pigeons or doves.  (Leviticus 12)

After the people of Israel were given the Ten Commandments by God through Moses, He commanded them to build an “Ark” in which to keep the Ten Commandments, which was called the “Ark of the Covenant.”  (Exodus 25)  This “ark” was carried everywhere as a reminder to the people of the covenant between them and the Lord, a covenant based on God’s love, but which practically speaking was centered on the Ten Commandments, as well as blood sacrifices to God, a large part of the Law.

At the Last Supper, Jesus instituted a New Covenant.  He took bread and wine and offered them to the Disciples, as His Body and Blood.  The next day, He shed His blood on the cross for our sins.  Whoever, then, partakes of the Body and Blood of Christ, is a participant in the New Covenant.

The New Covenant is without bloodshed. Because Christ shed His Blood for us, there is no need for us to shed any blood for Him or as atonement for sins.  Saint Paul writes in Galatians 6:15 “For neither circumcision counts for anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.”  We are no longer circumcised for religious reasons.  And in Romans 2, we read “nor is true circumcision something external and physical. . .real circumcision is a matter of the heart, spiritual and not literal.” (v. 28-29)  We are no longer circumcised in the flesh, but through baptism (our initiation into the faith) and through the Eucharist (what sustains our faith), we experience a circumcision, or changing, of our hearts.

The Eucharist is a “bloodless” sacrifice, where we present bread and wine to the Lord, and through the Grace of the Holy Spirit, these “gifts” are “consecrated” to become the Body and Blood of Christ.  We then partake of them, so that we have the opportunity to touch the Divine God and for the Divine God to touch us.

In Hebrews 9: 6-7, we read “These preparations having thus been made, the priests go continually into the outer tent, performing their ritual duties; but into the second only the high priest goes, and he but once a year, and not without taking blood, which he offers for himself and for the errors of the people.  And continuing on, we read in Hebrews 9:11-12: “But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and more perfect tent (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation), He entered once for all into the Holy Place, taking not the blood of goats and calves but His own blood, thus securing an eternal redemption.”

The Old Covenant taught us to live in obedience.  The New Covenant is to live in love.  In the Old Covenant, the people did not have access to the Holy of Holies, only the high priest and he only once a year.  In the New Covenant, we are welcome to approach Christ in the Eucharist, as many times as we wish.

In the New Covenant, we are to live in Christ, in the way that He lived.  We are to be walking “temples” of His love.  Through the Eucharist, Christ can live in us.  And through continual partaking in the Eucharist, we strengthen our bond with Christ.  This is why the Eucharist is offered so frequently.

In Hebrews 9:28, we read that “Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin, but to save those who are eagerly waiting for Him.”  The Christian life, then, is not a fearful obedience to rules, but an eager awaiting for Christ to return, and in preparation, we partake of Him continually in the Eucharist.  If we believe that heaven is the place where we will partake in divine nature on a permanent basis, meaning that once we go to heaven, we will never suffer the human condition again (sickness, dying, sinning, etc.), then in order to prepare to live with Christ eternally, He gave to us an opportunity to partake of Divine Nature in this life, in the institution of the Eucharist.

The Old Covenant called the people to moral living.  This was done through obedience to commandments.  The New Covenant calls us to eternal life.  We honor this covenant through partaking of Christ in the Eucharist.

In our churches, we have a tabernacle on the altar table, as a visual reminder of the New Covenant.  It no longer contains the Ten Commandments, but the Body and Blood of Christ, as a reminder that Christ is always present in our churches and in our lives and that we should be eagerly partaking of Him on a continual basis, in preparation for living on a permanent basis in His Heavenly Kingdom.

Receive me today, O Son of God, as a partaker of Your Mystical Supper; for I will not speak of the Mystery to Your enemies; nor will I kiss You as did Judas; but as the thief I confess You. “Lord, remember me when You come into Your Kingdom.” (From the Vesperal Liturgy on Holy Thursday Morning, Trans. by Fr. George Papadeas)

Live in Christ today!  Invite Him continually to live in you!


+Fr. Stavros

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About author

Fr. Stavros Akrotirianakis

Fr. Stavros N. Akrotirianakis is the Proistamenos of St. John Greek Orthodox Church in Tampa, FL. Fr. contributes the Prayer Team Ministry, a daily reflection, which began in February 2015. The Prayer Team now has its own dedicated website! Fr. Stavros has produced two books, “Let All Creation Rejoice: Reflections on Advent, the Nativity and Epiphany”: “ and “The Road Back to Christ: Reflections on Lent, Holy Week and the Resurrection.”